The Tashkent Declaration was a peace agreement between India and Pakistan signed on January 10, 1966, which settled the Indo-Pakistani War of 1965. Peace had been achieved on 23 September thanks to the intervention of external powers, which urged the two countries to a ceasefire, fearing that the conflict would intensify and involve other powers.   However, the ceasefire was fragile and the conflict could have resumed at any time. Sensing the need for a more binding agreement, the Soviet Union offered to act as a mediator, with the personal participation of Kosygin, the chairman of the Council of Ministers of the USSR. According to contemporaries` memoirs, Kosygin played a crucial role in finding a solution to the Indo-Pakistani conflict, as he enjoyed the trust of both sides. The meeting took place from 4 to 10 September. It was held in 1966 in Tashkent in the Uzbek Soviet Socialist Republic, in the Soviet Union (now Uzbekistan) to create a more permanent colony.  Despite this tragic event, the Tashkent Declaration was considered a great success of Soviet diplomacy in the resolution of international conflicts. The statement was not well received in India. The deal was backed by the Indian National Congress Party and the Communist Party of India, but opposition parties said the peace treaty had demoralized the country. In accordance with the Tashkent Declaration, talks were held at the ministerial level on 1 and 2 March 1966. Despite the fact that these talks were unproductive, diplomatic exchanges continued throughout the spring and summer.
The results were not achieved in these talks because there was disagreement on the Kashmir issue. The news of the Tashkent declaration shocked the People of Pakistan, who expected more concessions from India than they received. Things deteriorated further when Ayub Khan declined to comment and withdrew instead of announcing the reasons for signing the agreement. Protests and riots broke out in various parts of Pakistan.  To assuage the anger and concerns of the people, Ayub Khan decided to present the case to the people by addressing the nation on January 14, 1966. It was the difference with the Tashkent Declaration that eventually led to the removal of Zulfikar Ali Bhutto from Ayub`s government, who later founded his own party, the Pakistan People`s Party. Although Ayub Khan was able to satisfy the concerns of the people, the Tashkent declaration severely damaged his image and was one of the factors that led to his overthrow.  Mediation was conducted by the USSR, after which a meeting was held in Tashkent from January 4 to 10, 1966 to establish a more lasting peace between India and Pakistan. The discussion was moderated between Indian Prime Minister Lal Bahadur Shastri and Pakistani President Muhammad Ayub Khan by Soviet Prime Minister Alexei Kosygin The Indo-Pakistani agreement, which ends the largest military dispute over territorial disputes since World War II, was signed on January 10, 1966 in Tashkent, the capital of the then Uzbek SSR. When negotiations began, the conflict between India and Pakistan seriously threatened stability in the region. This conflict between two major regional powers threatened to escalate into a much larger war involving other states.
India was threatened by China, which was then an ally of Pakistan. Beijing has accused Delhi of aggression. Tashkent, 10 January 1966The Prime Minister of India and the President of Pakistan, who met in Tashkent and discussed the existing relations between India and Pakistan, hereby declare their firm determination to restore normal and peaceful relations between their countries and to promote understanding and friendly relations among their peoples. They consider the achievement of these goals to be crucial for the well-being of the 600 million people in India and Pakistan.I The Prime Minister of India and the President of Pakistan agree that both sides will make every effort to establish good-neighbourly relations between India and Pakistan in accordance with the Charter of the United Nations. They reaffirm their commitment under the Charter not to use force and to settle their differences by peaceful means. They considered that the interests of peace in their region, and especially in the Indo-Pakistani subcontinent, and even the interests of the peoples of India and Pakistan, were not served by the persistent tensions between the two countries. The two Governments respect the 1961 Vienna Convention on Intercourse.VI the Prime Minister of India and the President of Pakistan have agreed to consider measures to restore economic and trade relations, communication and cultural exchanges between India and Pakistan and to take measures to implement the existing agreements between India and Pakistan. VII The Prime Minister of India and the President of Pakistan have agreed that they will instruct their respective authorities to proceed with the repatriation of prisoners of war.
VIII. The Prime Minister of India and the President of Pakistan agreed that the parties would continue to discuss issues related to the problems of refugees and forced expulsions and illegal immigration. They also agreed that both sides will create the conditions that will prevent the exodus of people. They also agreed to discuss the restitution of property and assets acquired by both sides in the context of the conflict. IX The Prime Minister of India and the President of Pakistan agreed that the parties would continue their meetings at the highest and other levels on issues of direct concern to both countries. Both sides recognized the need to establish joint Indo-Pakistani bodies to report to their governments to decide on further steps to be taken. The Prime Minister of India and the President of Pakistan express their deep appreciation and gratitude to the leaders of the Soviet Union, the Soviet Government and personally to the Chairman of the Council of Ministers of the USSR. . . .